Weekly Monitor, 1 October 2010
Games around hydropower plants
The top authorities’ battle to build hydropower plants on the Moraca River is entering its final phase. This is obvious from the sharp tones of Prime Minister Milo Djukanovic and his economic guru Veselin Vukotic. “Decisions on development of new energy sources must be made quickly and resolutely because, otherwise, energy can become a major barrier to development. This requires the use of foreign investment and domestic resources, “said the Prime Minister at the Milocer conference.devoted to energy and development. Clearly: we have a fast river, the foreign investor money and that's power. The details – how much and/or who will benefit from that business and what will happen to the environment – we will find out, I guess, when it's too late. As has happened with the Aluminium Combine and the Steel Plant. The Prime Minister has pointed his finger at those who question the whole business: “The less compentent the part of the society, the more interested and impassionate it is for participating in discussions about which it knows very little. In Montenegro, everybody is an expert in energy, in environment, in everything”. Those who had complaints, criticisms or questions related to the construction of hydropower plants on Moraca would now probably need to shut up. And that, at a crucial moment. In the midst of public hearings on the Draft Concession Act, one of the key documents for decisions on the use of the Moraca River hydropower potential. Less Democracy: Professor Veselin Vukotic joined in the crackdown on useless critics: “In the field of development decisions, there should be more meritocracy than democracy. It must be more the rule of knowledge and vision, as opposed to ignorance and speculative expectations. Power industry is a good example of our speed in decision making – the discussion on construction of hydropower plants has lasted 30 years, “said Vukotic. And he regrets that we still don't have them. “It is not true that fruitless discussion on hydropower development is on for 30 years and that this is delaying their construction” said for Monitor Dejan Mijovic, Forum 2010 Coordinator for Economic Policy and Entrepreneurship. He explains that during this period former and current authorities launched four tenders for these plants, but none succeeded because no one wanted to finance the project. “That something is wrong with the project's economic and commercial viability, proves recent statement of Vuk Hamović, owner of EFT, the largest regional trader and investor in the energy sector, who is certainly not uninformed ” Mijovic
explains. Hamović said recently that his firm's analysis showed that Moraca power project has “certain commercial weaknesses” which prompted EFT to withdraw from the project. Who is useless: Darko Pajovic, Executive Director of NGO Green Home, says that after everything that happened in recent months with documents needed for the construction of four hydros, the Prime Minister should be well aware who actually doesn't know his job. “The real address where knowledge and skills should be checked are Djukanovic's associates. Those who adopted the bad and wrong documents, spent peoples’ money, time and energy. From all this follows that they are the ones who do not know their job. ” Pajovic adds that after all these worthless documents, we have now obtained the draft Concession Act, which is – disappointing. “Whenever we sought clarifications on previous documents, people from the government claimed that they will all be provided in the Concession Act. Unfortunately, it is now clear that the document does not contain a single key answer. Forum 2010 claims that the document is not in accordance with the Law on Concessions: “The published Draft Concession Act for Hydropower Plant Development on the Moraca River is incomplete, which represents a gross violation of the Law on Concessions and undermines the public debate on this crucial document, on the basis of which the tender concession should be launched. ” And that is not the only flaw. Forum 2010 has compiled a number of shortcomings of this key document – it is not clear how much the project will cost taxpayers, even though the law explicitly requires that this figure be stipulated. The draft Concession Act does not contain the amount of state participation in the project, which was estimated to be in the range of several hundred million euros during the recent debate on the Draft Spatial Plan (DPP) and Strategic Environmental Impact Assessment (SEA) for Moraca River Basin”. Also missing is the analysis showing whether the planned concession secures public interest, value for money, and the balancing of risks between the grantor and the concessionaire. Although its inclusion is mandatory, the text of draft concession agreement between the grantor and the concessionaire is not attached. The document only lists the main chapters that the concession agreement should include, but these chapters are already defined in the Article 43 of the Law on Concessions in greater detail than in the Draft Concession Act. Enigma upon enigma Although the Government repeatedly announced overl last several months that Draft Concession Act will address many unknowns – the document does not list the necessary measures to protect the environment and achieve energy efficiency. It is expected – that these will be proposed by the future concessionaire! “Too much space and too many options have been granted to the concessionare to decide on such important matters” said Darko Pajovic. He explains that this confirms NGO community's
assessment that Montenegrin energy sector is being managed by interest groups, rather than by the government. “Energy resources will not be created or used by Montenegro or its citizen, but by interest lobbies, “said Pajovic. Furthemore: “cost benefit analysis on the basis of which economic benefits and environmental impact of proposed technical solutions project could be estimated has not been performed, which makes the process non-transparent. ” Dejan Mijovic says that it is most distressing to see how little, if any, respect there is for professionalism, the public at large and the recently adopted European laws. The Law on Concessions, for example, has been prepared after several years of expert support granted by the European Union, USAID, GTZ, OECD and World Bank, and adopted after consultations with the European Commission, ” reminds Mijovic. But it is not enough to have a good European law. It should be applied, as well. What are the effects: Huge fees have been paid with taxpayers money to international consultants for preparation of the project documentation. Nonetheless, the recently established Mediterranean University has been retained to assess the economic effects of hydropower development. “This analysis and the basic parameters on which it is based was not published, so it is impossible to conduct a qualified discusssion on the economic effects of the power plant construction. However, from the reported results, one can already conclude that the analysis has exaggerated economic benefits and fully ignored the cost aspect, ie. negative consequences on the population and environment “, claims Forum 2010. Over the next days, all shortcomings of the Concessionary Act will come to the surface. But Forum 2010 warns that results of the earlier held public debate on SEA and DPP have still not been published. No explanation has been provided why the Technical solution I (high Andrijevo Dam) has been kept, despite numerous complaints heard during the public debate denied its validity. The concessionaire will have the freedom to propose in the bid his own technical variants that suit him. Forum 2010 notes that, pursuant to law, any new variant must undergo a public hearing before the tender. Criteria for evaluation of project bids are listed summarily, without specifying their relative weights. However, it is clear from the text that project bids will be evaluated on the basis of their respective energy contributions, which favors projects with greater number of large hydropower plants, regardless of their adverse impact on the population and the environment, explains Forum in its statement. Moraca Roads and Sides: Forum 2010 also claims that the estimated relocation of the existing Moraca highway has been significantly reduced without any explanation. In addition, instead of 100 km of new local roads that government representatives recently promised during the public debate, only 20 kilometers of local roads will be built in the Basic technical solution I, and 27 km
in the Basic technical solution II. Things are not easy for Djukanovic and his professionals. In their document, the minimum and maximum duration of the concession are not specified in accordance with Article 19, paragraph 3 of the Law on Concessions. Thus the possibility for a concession period longer than 30 years has been opened, which confirms experts’ doubts in the economic viability of the proposed concession. “Therefore, and bearing in mind that the duration of concessions of up to 30 years is determined by the Government, and the longer term concessions by the Parliament of Montenegro, the proposed Draft Concession Act would have to be reviewed and approved by the Montenegrin Parliament”, concludes Forum. However, Veselin Vukotic would not have it that way. He would give the government a free hand. No one should be allowed to mess up with them now that they are so close to the goal. And so many times to date, they have proved that they just know how to get there.
SILENT KILLER: DRUG ADDICTION AMONG YOUNG PEOPLE IN MONTENEGRO: Growing Hopelessness
Young people in Montenegro can reach dugs within half an hour. They often consume it in school backyards, most commonly marijuana, and the use of heavy psychoactive substances is increasing. Many of them suffer from psychological disorders. Monitor's interviewees agree that we don’t talk about this enough, and that we lack support of the society as a whole.
“They use drugs wherever they can, mostly in the schoolyard. They choose places where cameras can't capture them, and those who want to get “stuff” turn to them. In most cases, it is marijuana”, said student A.S. from Electro-Technical High School Vaso Aligrudic in Podgorica.
Last year's research of the Ombudsman Children and Addiction Diseases in Montenegro showed as well that drug addiction is one of the burning problems of young people in Montenegro. According to the research, which included 37 elementary and 25 high schools, marijuana was used by more than 11 percent of students, while on average, more than eight students consumed heavy drugs. “Half of drug addicts use one substance and the other half use two or more substances. Students in Montenegro use significantly more illegal (heavy) drugs than the EU average”, the study said. As many as 16 percent of students said that illicit substances were often consumed at school, and besides, there was an increase in the use of synthetic drugs, which are cheap and easily available.
“Those for whom I know that use marijuana do it behind the school. They did it before on the fire stairs. The most problematic is easy availability of drugs”, said student Z.K. from Economics High School Mirko Vesovic in Podgorica. More than 25 percent of the students that participated in the Ombudsman's research reported a similar view. If one wants drugs, it will take him half to several hours to get it, which is disturbing.
Dijana Milosevic, from Public Institution Kakaricka Gora, an institution for accommodation, rehabilitation and re-socialization of users of psychoactive substances in Podgorica said for Monitor that it generally began with marijuana “The adolescence itself, is the greatest crisis period of each individual, when identity problems naturally appear, difficulties in accepting authority, as well as a tendency to experiment with “forbidden things.” All these are favorable conditions for an adolescent to come into contact with psychoactive substances. There is a persistent misconception among young people that marijuana is not a drug or that it is an “easy drug” which facilitates entering into problem. Most often marijuana is the first substance that addicts consume. Besides consequences which it leaves on the psyche of the consumer, this is a misconception that can cost them their lives”.
According to her, the reasons why young people use drugs are mainly dissatisfaction, concern or rebellion against authority, boredom, family problems, peer violence as well as opinion that cigarettes, alcohol or drugs are some kind of “gateway” to a certain group of peers.
“Behind our school sports hall, you can often see older guys who give marijuana to children. It happens almost every day and its favorite gathering place”, told us another student of Electro-Technical High School Vaso Aligrudic.
Monitor addressed this issue to most of the high schools in Podgorica. The question what they did to restrain this problem, even after weeks of waiting, has not been answered.
“We do not work enough in schools with adolescents, when it comes to drug addiction. However, the reason for that is not in schools, but rather in insufficient involvement of institutions, which should tackle more with this problem. We cannot expect from schools to deal with the education of children and to be a police officer and someone who, among other responsibilities, will work with children on restraining this phenomenon. That is why they need help from both the institutions and the civil sector. Everybody has to deal with this phenomenon. Every year its presence in educational institutions is increasing”, said to Monitor NGO Euromost, whose main goal is to support fight against drugs abuse and all forms of addiction.
Drug abuse increased everywhere in the world, and the same happened in our country, regardless of the actions taken through health, educational, legal system, noted psychologist Natasa Vukovic, who works with peer educators as a part of NGO Euromost actions. “The number of drug users is becoming more noticeable among young people, among high school students and even elderly elementary school students. There are no harmless drugs. The continuous, systemic and systematic action of the whole society is necessary. The aim above all must be that children and young people never turn to drugs”.
According to her, inadequate assistance and lack of support from the family, primarily parents, who have failed to maintain a relationship of trust with their children, and who have failed to “impose” desirable role models, make young people an “easy target”.
“Eighteenth birthday celebrations are particularly problematic. Sometimes flats, where they mix two or three types of drugs and large amounts of alcohol, are being rented. Mostly, this refers to grammar school graduates. My daughter went to one such birthday celebration and she called me to pick her up, shocked and dreadful. She didn't know what was going on there. And parents have no idea”, said for Monitor Patricija Pobric, Director of NGO Our Action.
She claims that a deeper involvement in drug addiction is often preceded by some criminal acts: “Usually, as of the third grade of high school, young people are recruited to buy ID cards by older students. These kids turn to drugs afterwards. They are “carriers” and it’s easy to involve them in petty crimes. They later buy motorcycles and cars from that money “.
Many start using drugs because they expect that it will help them deal with problems on a daily basis. Many start out of curiosity, with the well-known – ‘I will just try it’. Asked why someone became an addict and someone did not, especially if persons grew up in similar circumstances or even in the same family, Natasa Vukovic said that there was no clear and definite answer: “The only certain conclusion is that you should clearly advise everyone not to try psychoactive substance because one does not know in advance whether he/she is sensitive to it, which would mean that even a single intake already creates a psychic need for re-taking it. Such patients exist in practice, and they have a common characteristic that they “immediately liked the drug”.
Euromost noted that in addition to combating drug trafficking, we should work also on improving prevention of drug addiction among youth: “Upon completing the training of the first peer educators, Euromost, besides Bijelo Polje, has expanded its workshops to other northern municipalities, such as Plav, Gusinje and Rozaje. The number of participants is the best indicator of youth interest. However, in order for this to be successful, it is necessary to constantly communicate with young people and listen to what they have to say. It is not really useful just to find an expert who will explain them what the drug is and how it looks like”.
Natasa Vukovic, pointed out for Monitor, that addiction can be closely related to young people’s mental problems. Mind and mental healthcare is still a taboo topic in Montenegro. “It is true that in recent years more and more young people have sought help and advice of psychologists, but still shyly, almost always asking for visits not to be evidenced, and that parents do not find out about it, because it is often very difficult for them to accept the fact that their child goes to a psychologist or psychiatrist”, she said.
The state has similar approach. “There is no institution in our country where young people with a mental illness can be treated”, warned Vukovic.
In Montenegro, National Register on Drug Addiction has been maintained since 2013 by the Institute for Public Health, but it functions only on the basis of data collected from health institutions. There is no information about those who are not reported. According to recent estimates, there are more than 15,000 drug addicts in Montenegro.
How many of them are young people and children is not precisely known. The results of the research are discouraging. Monitor's interviewees agree – there is a lack of communication and cooperation between institutions, schools, parents and young people. And the problem of addiction is not the problem of the individual, but of the whole society.
Milo Popovic and Andrea Jelic
HOW HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS ACCEPTED STAY-AT-HOME AND SOCIAL DISTANCING ORDERS: Time of Worrying and Learning
It has been shown that keeping prescribed distance without physical contact, shaking hands, hugging … is one of the least respected measures among surveyed high school students. According to received answers, the only recommendation that was less respected was the one concerning wearing of protective equipment
Do high school students in Podgorica and to what extent respect the measures taken to prevent coronavirus spread? Through social networks, we surveyed about 200 students, from all high schools in Podgorica, to find out first-hand, how they cope with recommendations and measures that, among other things, limit movement and outdoor activities.
“Ever since the coronavirus appeared in Montenegro and since the Government announced the protective measures, I fully comply with them,” Elena Dabetic told us. “I haven't been out of the house since March, even when I have to go to the store, I go with full equipment: masks, gloves, and I keep distance from other people. Quarantine was not difficult for me since I’ve focused on some other activities, for which I did not have time, such as drawing. I kill boredom by playing online video games with my friends, watching movies, reading books, etc. I believe that people just need to think positively and use this time to work on themselves; well, we have a lot of time and we will learn more to appreciate going out after all this.”
Others, again, relativized the danger and explained why they did not exactly adhere to the imposed measures of social distancing. In fact, it was shown that keeping a prescribed distance of 1-2 meters without physical contact, shaking hands, hugging…was one of the least respected measures among surveyed high school students. Only every tenth respondent respected this experts’ recommendation. Even less number of respondents, according to received answers, respected recommendation concerning wearing of protective equipment. It was respected by every fifth research participant.
“When it comes to quarantine, I was relaxed at first, but when the situation intensified, I took it more seriously,” said Isidora Milatovic. “It is difficult for me to get used to it. This is the first time I am faced with situation like this. I spend my time learning, so I don't really do any other activities. I sincerely hope that the situation will stabilize and that we will soon return to a normal life. ”
Her peer Danilo Kujacic explained: “I accept quarantine well, since my usual lifestyle is not much different. I spend most of my day at the computer. I go out with friends in the evening or occasionally, go out for training. I think the current situation is exaggerated and not half as significant as the media present it.”
A significant number of young people, according to their own testimonies, comply with the recommendations and stay at home. Survey has found that watching series and movies, playing games on a phone/computer and using social networks are three of the most common activities young people currently do. According to collected data, every tenth respondent takes an online course, learns a foreign language and (or) reads extracurricular literature.
Milica Radulovic stated that the current situation disturbed everyone's usual activities, but, as she said, we must accept this way of life. “We all eagerly wait for measures to ease, but until that happens, we must use this time as good as possible. I suggest that we all devote this time to ourselves: by doing home-based training, reading a book, studying, but also communicating with friends through social networks. If after doing all of these you still have spare time, you can always watch a series or a movie…”, said our interviewee. And she concluded: “I really miss gatherings in the neighbourhood, but these measures must be respected if we want to get back to our old habits as soon as possible.”
In our survey, high school students cited several common reasons why they went out: a third of surveyed participants went out to shop at stores and pharmacies; a quarter for a walk or training in nature; every fifth for meeting and hanging out with friends… Boris Janjusevic said: “It was strange at first, but over time I got used to it. I spend my time doing homework, but of course I play games more than usual. As usual I spare an hour, an hour and a half of time for training.”
Given the new circumstances, interaction between students and professors in the school classroom has been replaced by online teaching, a platform and a website. Survey showed that most students did assignments, presentations, essays which professors gave, as well as that they studied provided resources. However, based on the results, two-thirds of high school students were not satisfied with online teaching, since, as they said, new way of work, to which they were not used to, required more work, effort and time than “traditional” class attendance.
Almost everyone missed social life, going out and socializing (without set limits). “I am very bored in quarantine and it has been difficult for me to find anything interesting to do”, notes S.P. who wanted to remain anonymous. “I usually play games, write songs, listen to music or do my homework. The current situation has great impact on us and our psyche. When all this is over, the consequences will be visible in our country, as well as in the whole world”, he said.
On the other hand, a smaller number of respondents said that they did not have any difficulties during quarantine. They believe that there has not been any other situation in which they would have so much time to devote to themselves and to improve their skills and potentials. Thus, M.P. explained: “I learn languages during quarantine. I try to organize myself well, especially because of my school obligations. Of course, this is not always possible, but I manage. I also watch movies, communicate with friends, and read books. This is a chance to correct most of the mistakes, because time, despite the space barrier, works in our favour. ”
We spoke with Patricia Pobric, a civic activist and Executive Director of the NGO Our Action, about the behaviour of young people in this new situation caused by coronavirus pandemic and in what way they can make useful contribution.
“One who understands young people understands that current situation is most difficult to them. It's still easy for kids to have fun at home with toys and other activities, but young people are, by their nature, very social beings. They like to move, to socialize, go out…Although we consider that they are too much attached to their phones, physical socializing means a lot to them. In general, I think most young people understood the significance of the situation, and that it was accepted with understanding but not with fear. Only young people to whom parents, relatives, and media transferred fear, showed it.”
Pobric however, pointed out that there were also undesirable examples. “It happens that a small number of young men drives their vehicles after curfew, or organize trips and barbecues and do not respect social distancing. My advice to young members of NGO Our Action, from the beginning of quarantine, was to spend time after online school activities not only on games and internet, but also on planting, working on farms, gardens, learning new skills at home and in nature.” Photos prove that some have accepted the advice.
PUBLIC CALL CIN-CG: EMPOWERING RE POPULATION TO ACESS THE LABOR MARKET
Centre for Investigative Journalism of Montenegro (CIN-CG), in the framework of the project:
“Empowering RE population to access the labor market”
(project provided with the financial support of the European Union and the Government of Montenegro)
A PUBLIC CALL
For training in the media industry – 25 interns from RE population
(Training for journalists, cameramen, graphic designers, workers in printing plant and other jobs in electronic, print and online media)
The training will consist of two stages. The first stage includes two-month training for 25 participants, for which fee will be provided. Following the first stage training, the Commission will select five trainees who show the best tendencies for work in the media. A five-month employment contract will be signed with them. The participants will be trained in media work and they will be involved in media production, for which they will receive regular monthly salary.
The Call is open for unemployed members of RE population residing in the territory of Montenegro who completed at least a primary school and are registered with the Employment Agency of Montenegro. Priority will be given to candidates with high school and college degrees.
Interested candidates should send their applications with a CV, confirmation from the records of the Employment Agency of Montenegro and motivational letter by 15/02/2020 at the latest, by e-mail to: email@example.com, or to the address: CIN-CG, Trg nezavisnosti bb, 81000 Podgorica.
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